How Ceramic Tiles are Made - A Comprehensive Guide




Ceramic tile is a revolutionary product that has recently changed the entire flooring and wall cladding industry. 20 billion sq mt of tile is produced every year around the world & in this video, we are going to understand exactly how ceramic (biscuit) tiles are made.

What is a biscuit ceramic tile, you guys might be wondering. It is basically a tile before the printing, glazing, and firing are done. So the base tile or raw tile is technically called biscuit tile. Biscuit ceramic tiles are brittle and have moisture in them. 


1st step: Getting the raw materials

Ceramic tile is made of all-natural raw materials such as feldspar, china clay, and talc which are sourced from quarries around the world. All of these raw materials are converted into a powder form and then mixed together along with water in a huge rotating component called a ball mill. Ball mills basically crush the different raw materials and mix them with water to produce the slurry. 


2nd step: Spray drying of Slurry

Next, this slurry is stored in underground storage units and it is continuously rotated to obtain the consistency of the raw material slurry. As per the requirement, the slurry is next pumped into a spray dryer where the moisture from the liquid evaporates and the final raw material mixture is obtained in powder form. Spray Dryer is a cylindrical machinery which the widest part on the top and as the slurry goes from the top to the bottom part, it is converted into the powder form. 

3rd step: Silo Storage

The next step is to convert this raw material into the tile using a Press. However, ceramic tile production is a continuous process and thus everything needs to be planned and required to go further very meticulously. Once the raw material has exited from a spray dryer, it comes to the rolling belts which transport the material to the storage units. These storage units are called Silos. Now, there might be multiple Silos in a single factory depending on the type of products or the production capacity of the factory. Also, different silos are used for different batches of the raw material mixtures. The raw materials sit in these silos until it is required to move further to the next step.


4th step: Pressing

This is one of the most critical parts of the entire ceramic tile production. The raw material is fed into the press from the top part and it falls in a tray or a mold (technically!) The mold consists of an up-down pattern on the bottom part and the top part is either plain or with the texture as per the type of the tile surface. This press exerts a force on the raw material as per the tile size and type. The typical porcelain tile press would be able to exert force up to 50000 kN but still, it depends on the size, cavity, and the production capacity of the factory. Nowadays hydraulic presses with force capacity up to 160000 kN are available in the market. That is a whole lotta force and it converts the raw material powder into the biscuit tiles in seconds. Sacmi is one of the best manufacturers of hydraulic presses in the market right now.

This is how ceramic Tiles are made.

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